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Thinkinh

Design thinking is also associated with prescriptions for the innovation of thinkinh and services within business and social contexts.

Some of these prescriptions have been criticized for oversimplifying the design process and trivializing the role of technical knowledge and skills. Design thinking encompasses processes such as context analysis, problem finding and framing, ideation and solution generating, creative thinking, sketching and drawing, modelling and prototyping, testing and evaluating. Rather than accept the problem as given, designers explore the given problem and its context and may re-interpret or restructure the given problem in order to reach a particular framing of the problem that suggests a route to a solution. In empirical studies of three-dimensional problem solving, Bryan Lawson found architects employed solution-focused cognitive strategies, distinct from the problem-focused strategies of scientists.

Nigel Cross suggests that ‘Designers tend to use solution conjectures as the means of developing their understanding of the problem’. The creative mode of reasoning in design thinking is abductive reasoning, rather than the more familiar forms of inductive and deductive reasoning. In the process of designing the designer’s attention typically oscillates between their understanding of the problematic context and their ideas for a solution in a process of co-evolution of problem and solution. Conventionally, designers communicate mostly in visual or object languages to translate abstract requirements into concrete objects.

These ‘languages’ include traditional sketches and drawings but also extend to computer models and physical prototypes. The process may also be thought of as a system of overlapping spaces rather than a sequence of orderly thinkinh: inspiration, ideation, and implementation. Projects may loop back through inspiration, ideation, and implementation more than once as the team refines its ideas and explores new directions. Generally, the design innovation process starts with the inspiration phase: understanding the problem or the opportunity.

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This understanding can be documented in a brief which includes constraints that gives the project team a framework from which to begin, benchmarks by which they can measure progress, and a set of objectives to be realized—such as price point, available technology, and market segment. In their book Creative Thinking Tom and David Kelley state the importance of empathy with clients, users and customers as a basis for innovative design. Designers approach users with the goal of understanding their wants and needs, what might make their life easier and more enjoyable and how technology can be useful for them. The process is characterized by the alternation of divergent and convergent thinking, typical of design thinking process. To achieve divergent thinking, it may be important to have a diverse group of people involved in the process.

Design teams typically begin with a structured brainstorming process of «thinking outside the box». Convergent thinking, on the other hand, aims for zooming and focusing on the different proposals to select the best choice, which permits continuation of the design thinking process to achieve the final goals. After collecting and sorting lots of ideas, a team goes through a process of pattern finding and synthesis in which it has to translate ideas into insights that can lead to solutions or opportunities for change. These might be either visions of new product offerings, or choices among various ways of creating new experiences. The third space of the design thinking innovation process is implementation, when the best ideas generated during ideation are turned into something concrete.

However, we believe that PLS case studied an adequate choice if the research problem meets certain characteristics and the technique is properly used.
It is both an introduction to relativity theory and a survey of the literature.

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