Singularities that arise in the solutions of Einstein’s equations are strong hypothesis hidden within event horizons, and therefore cannot be observed from the rest of spacetime.
Roger Penrose first formulated the cosmic censorship hypothesis in 1969. Since the physical behavior of singularities is unknown, if singularities can be observed from the rest of spacetime, causality may break down, and physics may lose its predictive power. The hypothesis was first formulated by Roger Penrose in 1969, and it is not stated in a completely formal way. The weak and the strong cosmic censorship hypothesis are two conjectures concerned with the global geometry of spacetimes.
The weak cosmic censorship hypothesis asserts there can be no singularity visible from future null infinity. The strong cosmic censorship hypothesis asserts that, generically, general relativity is a deterministic theory, in the same sense that classical mechanics is a deterministic theory. The two conjectures are mathematically independent, as there exist spacetimes for which weak cosmic censorship is valid but strong cosmic censorship is violated and, conversely, there exist spacetimes for which weak cosmic censorship is violated but strong cosmic censorship is valid. This amounts to the angular momentum of the black hole being constrained to below a critical value, outside of which the horizon would disappear. Imagine specifically trying to violate the censorship conjecture. Testing other values shows that no particle with enough angular momentum to violate the censorship conjecture would be able to enter the black hole, because they have too much angular momentum to fall in. There are technical difficulties with properly formalizing the notion of a singularity.
A formal statement needs some set of hypotheses which exclude these situations. Caustics may occur in simple models of gravitational collapse, and can appear to lead to singularities. These have more to do with the simplified models of bulk matter used, and in any case have nothing to do with general relativity, and need to be excluded. These special circumstances need to be excluded by some hypotheses. In 1991, John Preskill and Strong hypothesis Thorne bet against Stephen Hawking that the hypothesis was false.
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Hawking conceded the bet in 1997, due to the discovery of the special situations just mentioned, which he characterized as «technicalities». James B Hartle, Gravity in chapter 15: Rotating Black Holes. Scalar Field Counter-Examples to the Cosmic Censorship Hypothesis. Penrose, Roger: «Gravitational collapse: The role of general relativity», Riv. This article needs additional citations for verification. This article possibly contains original research.
A direct implication is that it is impossible to «beat the market» consistently on a risk-adjusted basis since market prices should only react to new information. The efficient-market hypothesis was developed by Eugene Fama who argued that stocks always trade at their fair value, making it impossible for investors to either purchase undervalued stocks or sell stocks for inflated prices. There are three variants of the hypothesis: «weak», «semi-strong», and «strong» form. There is no quantitative measure of market efficiency and testing the idea is difficult. So-called «effect studies» provide some of the best evidence, but they are open to other interpretations. Benoit Mandelbrot claimed the efficient markets theory was first proposed by the French mathematician Louis Bachelier in 1900 in his PhD thesis «The Theory of Speculation» describing how prices of commodities and stocks varied in markets.
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