The specific requirements to earn a PhD degree vary considerably according to the country, institution, and time period, recommendation in thesis entry-level research degrees to higher doctorates.
A PhD candidate must submit a project, thesis or dissertation often consisting of a body of original academic research, which is in principle worthy of publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Recommendation the context of the Doctor of Philosophy and other similarly titled degrees, the term «philosophy» does not refer to the field or academic discipline of philosophy, but is used in in broader sense in accordance with its original Greek meaning, which is «love of thesis». The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research.
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No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations. Besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. This situation changed in the early 19th century through the educational reforms in Germany, most strongly embodied in the model of the University of Berlin, founded and controlled by the Prussian government in 1810. These reforms proved extremely successful, and fairly quickly the German universities started attracting foreign students, notably from the United States. The American students would go to Germany to obtain a PhD after having studied for a bachelor’s degrees at an American college.
The PhD degree and similar awards spread across Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The University of London introduced the DSc in 1860, but as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc, rather than a research degree. Finally, in 1917, the current PhD degree was introduced, along the lines of the American and German model, and quickly became popular with both British and foreign students. Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century. A Yale University PhD diploma from 1861.
Until the mid-19th century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges. That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities. In the next two decades, NYU, the University of Pennsylvania, Harvard, and Princeton also began granting the degree. Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in 1887 which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program. At the start of the 20th century, U.
In Germany, the national government funded the universities and the research programs of the leading professors. It was impossible for professors who were not approved by Berlin to train graduate students. In the United States, by contrast, private universities and state universities alike were independent of the federal government. Independence was high, but funding was low. Detailed requirements for the award of a PhD degree vary throughout the world and even from school to school.
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Disciplined, self-directed thinking which exemplifies the perfections of thinking appropriate to a particular mode or domain of thinking.
Researching and writing a dissertation I was surprised when I got a part in the class play, notwithstanding that everybody got a part.