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Peer reviewed academic articles

An academic peer reviewed academic articles scholarly journal is a periodical publication in which scholarship relating to a particular academic discipline is published.

Academic journals serve as permanent and transparent forums for the presentation, scrutiny, and discussion of research. The idea of a published journal with the purpose of » people know what is happening in the Republic of Letters» was first conceived by Eudes de Mazerai in 1663. A publication titled Journal littéraire général was supposed to be published to fulfill that goal, but never was. Universities both in France and outside. In 1733, Medical Essays and Observations was established by the Medical Society of Edinburgh as the first fully peer-reviewed journal.

There are two kinds of article or paper submissions in academia: solicited, where an individual has been invited to submit work either through direct contact or through a general submissions call, and unsolicited, where an individual submits a work for potential publication without directly being asked to do so. Review articles, also called «reviews of progress,» are checks on the research published in journals. Some journals are devoted entirely to review articles, some contain a few in each issue, and others do not publish review articles. Not to be confused with Literary book review. Journals typically have a separate book review editor determining which new books to review and by whom. If an outside scholar accepts the book review editor’s request for a book review, he or she generally receives a free copy of the book from the journal in exchange for a timely review.

An academic journal’s prestige is established over time, and can reflect many factors, some but not all of which are expressible quantitatively. In each academic discipline, there are dominant journals that receive peer reviewed academic articles largest number of submissions, and therefore can be selective in choosing their content. In the natural sciences and in the social sciences, the impact factor is an established proxy, measuring the number of later articles citing articles already published in the journal. The categorization of journal prestige in some subjects has been attempted, typically using letters to rank their academic world importance.

Articles to critique

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Many academic journals are subsidized by universities or professional organizations, and do not exist to make a profit. However, they often accept advertising, page and image charges from authors to pay for production costs. On the other hand, some journals are produced by commercial publishers who do make a profit by charging subscriptions to individuals and libraries. Journal editors tend to have other professional responsibilities, most often as teaching professors. In the case of the largest journals, there are paid staff assisting in the editing.

The production of the journals is almost always done by publisher-paid staff. Humanities and social science academic journals are usually subsidized by universities or professional organization. The Internet has revolutionized the production of, and access to, academic journals, with their contents available online via services subscribed to by academic libraries. Individual articles are subject-indexed in databases such as Google Scholar. The much lower entry cost of on-line publishing has also raised concerns of an increase in publication of «junk» journals with lower publishing standards.

Die Notwendigkeit der Mitarbeiterbindung wird unter Einbeziehung aktueller Studien im dritten Kapitel beschrieben.
Greece, China, and India all had major contributions in the fields of science and math.

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