The master’s degree dates back to the origin of European universities, with a Papal bull of 1233 decreeing that master degree dissertation admitted to the mastership in the University of Toulouse should be allowed to teach freely in any other university.
From the late Middle Ages until the nineteenth century, the pattern of degrees was therefore to have a bachelor’s and master’s degree in the lower faculties and to have bachelor’s and doctorates in the higher faculties. Harvard University soon after its foundation. The nineteenth century saw a great expansion in the variety of master’s degrees offered. At the start of the century, the only master’s degree was the MA, and this was normally awarded without any further study or examination. The Master in Surgery degree was introduced by the University of Glasgow in 1815.
In Scotland, Edinburgh maintained separate BA and MA degrees until the mid nineteenth century, although there were major doubts as to the quality of the Scottish degrees of this period. 1840 by the similarly new University of London, which was only empowered by its charter to grant degrees by examination. At the University of Michigan this was introduced in two forms in 1858: «in course», first awarded in 1859, and «on examination», first awarded in 1862. The «in course» MS was last awarded in 1876.
In Britain, however, the degree took a while longer to arrive. Britain in 1878 at Durham, followed by the new Victoria University in 1881. This was the first master’s degree in business, the forerunner of the modern MBA. This led to the establishment of the Quality Assurance Master degree dissertation, which was charged with drawing up the framework. The QAA released the first «framework for higher education qualifications in England, Wales and Northern Ireland» in January 2001. Master» should only be used for qualifications that met those learning outcomes in full.
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Engineering, Physics, Chemistry, Business Administration, etc. The form «Master in » is also sometimes used, particularly where a faculty title is used for an integrated master’s in addition to its use in a traditional postgraduate master’s, e. Master of Science is generally abbreviated M. MS in countries following United States usage and MSc in countries following British usage, where MS would refer to the degree of Master of Surgery. Non-master’s level master’s degrees The ancient universities of the UK and Ireland have traditionally awarded MAs in a different manner to that usual today. The Scottish MA is a bachelor’s-level qualification offered by the ancient universities of Scotland.
Research master’s degrees are primarily research based, although may contain taught elements, particularly on research methods. Master’s by Research, and the MPhil. Specialised or advanced study master’s degrees are primarily taught degrees, although commonly at least a third of the course is devoted to a research project assessed by dissertation. These may be stand-alone master’s courses, leading to, e.
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