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Not to be confused with consciousness. Conscience is a cognitive process that elicits emotion and rational associations based on an individual’s moral philosophy or value system. Conscience stands in contrast to elicited emotion or thought due to associations based on immediate sensory perceptions and reflexive responses, as in sympathetic central nervous system responses. Seated Buddha, Gandhara, 2nd century CE. The Buddha linked conscience with compassion for those who must endure cravings and suffering in the world until right conduct culminates in right mindfulness and right contemplation. Marcus Aurelius bronze fragment, Louvre, Paris: «To move from one unselfish action to another with God in mind.
Conscience also features prominently in Buddhism. In the Pali scriptures, for example, Buddha links the positive aspect of conscience to a pure heart and a calm, well-directed mind. Last page of Ghazali’s autobiography in MS Istanbul, Shehid Ali Pasha 1712, dated A. Ghazali’s crisis of epistemological skepticism was resolved by «a light which God Most High cast into my breast the key to most knowledge. The Islamic concept of Taqwa is closely related to conscience. 22:37 Taqwa refers to «right conduct» or «piety», «guarding of oneself» or «guarding against evil».
Surah al-Hujurat, 49:13 declares: «come to know each other, the noblest of you, in the sight of God, are the ones possessing taqwá». Qur’ān verse 49:13 states: «O humankind! We have created you out of male and female and constituted you into different groups and societies, so that you may come to know each other-the noblest of you, mahatma gandhi biography in english essay outline the sight of God, are the ones possessing taqwā.
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In the Protestant Christian tradition, Martin Luther insisted in the Diet of Worms that his conscience was captive to the Word of God, and it was neither safe nor right to go against conscience. To Luther, conscience falls within the ethical, rather than the religious, sphere. National Gallery of Greece-Alexandros Soutzos Museum. This dilemma of obedience in conscience to divine or state law, was demonstrated dramatically in Antigone’s defiance of King Creon’s order against burying her brother an alleged traitor, appealing to the «unwritten law» and to a «longer allegiance to the dead than to the living».
Catholic theology sees conscience as the last practical «judgment of reason which at the appropriate moment enjoins to do good and to avoid evil». Jewish history rabbis have circumvented laws they found unconscionable, such as capital punishment. Charles Darwin thought that any animal endowed with well-marked social instincts would inevitably acquire a moral sense or conscience, as its intellectual powers approximated man’s. The secular approach to conscience includes psychological, physiological, sociological, humanitarian, and authoritarian views.
Antonio Damasio considers conscience an aspect of extended consciousness beyond survival-related dispositions and incorporating the search for truth and desire to build norms and ideals for behavior. Michel Glautier argues that conscience is one of the instincts and drives which enable people to form societies: groups of humans without these drives or in whom they are insufficient cannot form societies and do not reproduce their kind as successfully as those that do. War criminal Adolf Eichmann in passport used to enter Argentina: his conscience spoke with the «respectable voice» of the indoctrinated wartime German society that surrounded him. Fundamental in this view of conscience is that humans consider some «other» as being in a social relationship.
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