Jump to navigation Jump to search For the Statistics Literature survey means publication, see Survey Methodology.
Researchers carry out statistical surveys with a view towards making statistical inferences about the population being studied, and such inferences depend strongly on the survey questions used. Survey methodology as a scientific field seeks to identify principles about the sample design, data collection instruments, statistical adjustment of data, and data processing, and final data analysis that can create systematic and random survey errors. Survey errors are sometimes analyzed in connection with survey cost. Cost constraints are sometimes framed as improving quality within cost constraints, or alternatively, reducing costs for a fixed level of quality. Identify and select potential sample members.
Select the mode literature posing questions and collecting responses. Check data files for accuracy and internal consistency. Adjust survey estimates to correct for identified errors. The sample is chosen from the means frame, which consists of a list of all members of the population of interest. The survey of a survey is not to describe the sample, but the larger population.
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This generalizing ability is dependent on the representativeness of the sample, as stated above. Each member of the population is termed an element. There are several ways of administering a survey. Different methods create mode effects that change how respondents answer, and different methods have different advantages. There are several different designs, or overall structures, that can be used in survey research. The three general types are cross-sectional, successive independent samples, and longitudinal studies.
A cross-sectional study describes characteristics of that population at one time, but cannot give any insight as to the causes of population characteristics because it is a predictive, correlational design. A successive independent samples design draws multiple random samples from a population at one or more times. This design can study changes within a population, but not changes within individuals because the same individuals are not surveyed more than once. Such studies cannot, therefore, identify the causes of change over time necessarily.
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