It is critical, hence well above freezing temperatures.
C is chilling injury rather than freeze injury. Freeze injury occurs in all plants due to ice formation. Frost damage occurs when ice forms inside the plant tissue and injures the plant cells. Frost is may have a drastic effect upon the entire plant or affect only a small part of the plant tissue, which reduces yield, or merely product quality. In this chapter, a short discussion of the mechanisms, types and symptoms of freeze injury is presented. Later in this chapter, critical short discussion of hardening, sensitivity, kind-of-damage and critical damage temperatures of it crops are presented.
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Direct intracellular freeze injury is associated with rapid cooling. C when the supercooled water froze inside the cells. C over 23 minutes, ice formation was extracellular and the plants fully recovered after thawing. Although the evidence is not strong, it seems that the rate of thawing after a freeze is also partially related to the amount of damage. Citrus growers in southern California commonly believe that slowing the warming process after a freeze night can reduce frost damage.
In fact, growers justify operating wind machines longer into the morning following a freeze night in order to slow the thawing process. Recall that the saturation vapour pressure is lower over ice than over liquid water. As a result of extracellular ice formation, water will evaporate from the liquid water inside the cells and will pass through the semipermeable cell membranes and deposit on the ice crystals outside of the cells. Note that antitranspirants are often promoted as a method of freeze protection. It is argued that the frost damage occurs because of cell dehydration and the antitranspirants are purported to reduce water loss from the plants and provide freeze protection. However, the cell desiccation results from evaporation of cellular water in response to a vapour pressure gradient caused by extracellular ice formation and not because of transpiration.
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