For the human faculty define creative writing thinking and understanding, see Intellect.
For human intelligence, see Human intelligence. Intelligence is most often studied in humans but has also been observed in both non-human animals and in plants. The definition of intelligence is controversial. A very general mental capability that, among other things, involves the ability to reason, plan, solve problems, think abstractly, comprehend complex ideas, learn quickly and learn from experience. It is not merely book learning, a narrow academic skill, or test-taking smarts.
Rather, it reflects a broader and deeper capability for comprehending our surroundings—»catching on,» «making sense» of things, or «figuring out» what to do. Individuals differ from one another in their ability to understand complex ideas, to adapt effectively to the environment, to learn from experience, to engage in various forms of reasoning, to overcome obstacles by taking thought. The aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment. To my mind, a human intellectual competence must entail a set of skills of problem solving — enabling the individual to resolve genuine problems or difficulties that he or she encounters and, when appropriate, to create an effective product — and must also entail the potential for finding or creating problems — and thereby laying the groundwork for the acquisition of new knowledge. The ability to deal with cognitive complexity. The theory of Structural Cognitive Modifiability describes intelligence as «the unique propensity of define creative writing beings to change or modify the structure of their cognitive functioning to adapt to the changing demands of a life situation».
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AI researchers: «Intelligence measures an agent’s ability to achieve goals in a wide range of environments», which has been mathematically formalized. Intelligence is a force, F, that acts so as to maximize future freedom of action. It acts to maximize future freedom of action, or keep options open, with some strength T, with the diversity of possible accessible futures, S, up to some future time horizon, τ. In short, intelligence doesn’t like to get trapped». Human intelligence is the intellectual power of humans, which is marked by complex cognitive feats and high levels of motivation and self-awareness. Intelligence enables humans to remember descriptions of things and use those descriptions in future behaviors.
Note that much of the above definition applies also to the intelligence of non-human animals. The common chimpanzee can use tools. This chimpanzee is using a stick to get food. Although humans have been the primary focus of intelligence researchers, scientists have also attempted to investigate animal intelligence, or more broadly, animal cognition. These researchers are interested in studying both mental ability in a particular species, and comparing abilities between species.
Wolfgang Köhler’s research on the intelligence of apes is an example of research in this area. Stanley Coren’s book, The Intelligence of Dogs is a notable book on the topic of dog intelligence. Cephalopod intelligence also provides important comparative study. Cephalopods appear to exhibit characteristics of significant intelligence, yet their nervous systems differ radically from those of backboned animals. Evidence of a general factor of intelligence has been observed in non-human animals.
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