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By the 1850s the term crinoline was more usually applied to the fashionable silhouette provided by horsehair petticoats, and to the hoop skirts that replaced them in the mid-1850s. The steel-hooped cage crinoline, first patented in April 1856 by R. Milliet in Paris, and by their agent in Britain a few months later, became extremely popular. Steel cage crinolines were mass-produced in huge quantity, with factories across the Western world producing tens of thousands in a year.

Crinolines were worn by women of every social standing and class across the Western world, from royalty to factory workers. This led to widespread media scrutiny and criticism, particularly in satirical magazines such as Punch. They were also hazardous if worn without due care. Thousands of women died in the mid-19th century as a result of their hooped skirts catching fire. The crinoline silhouette was revived several times in the 20th century, particularly in the late 1940s as a result of Christian Dior’s «New Look» of 1947. The flounced nylon and net petticoats worn in the 1950s and 1960s to poof out skirts also became known as crinolines even when there were no hoops in their construction. The crinoline was not the first garment designed to support the wearer’s skirts in a fashionable shape.

The horsehair fabric called crinoline was first noted by 1829, when it was offered for lining and dress-making. Petticoats made of horsehair crinoline appeared around 1839, proving so successful that the name ‘crinoline’ began to refer to supportive petticoats in general, rather than solely to the material. By 1847, crinoline fabric was being used as a stiffening for skirt linings, although English women preferred separate crinoline fabric petticoats which were beginning to collapse under the increasing weight of the skirts. The crinoline needed to be rigid enough to support the skirts in their accustomed shape, but also flexible enough to be temporarily pressed out of shape and spring back afterwards. Alison Gernsheim concluded that the maximum realistic circumference was in fact between five-and-a-half and six yards. The crinoline began to fall out of fashion from about 1866. A modified version, the crinolette, was a transitional garment bridging the gap between the cage crinoline and the bustle.

Fashionable from 1867 through to the mid-1870s, the crinolette was typically composed of half-hoops, sometimes with internal lacing or ties designed to allow adjustment of fullness and shape. Caricature showing a lady scolding her maid for wearing a crinoline. The crinoline was perceived as a signifier of social identity, with a popular subject for cartoons being that of maids wearing crinolines like their mistresses, much to the higher-class ladies’ disapproval. Arthur Munby observed that in the «barbarous locality» of Wigan, the sight of a female colliery worker wearing trousers was «not half as odd as a woman wearing a crinoline,» exposing his own upper-class attitudes. The difficulties associated with the garment, such as its size, the problems and hazards associated with wearing and moving about in it, and the fact that it was worn so widely by women of all social classes, were frequently exaggerated and parodied in satirical articles and illustrations such as those in Punch.

The flammability of the crinoline was widely reported. It is estimated that, during the late 1850s and late 1860s in England, about 3,000 women were killed in crinoline-related fires. One such incident, the death of a 14-year-old kitchenmaid called Margaret Davey was reported in The Times on 13 February 1863. Other risks associated with the crinoline were that it could get caught in other people’s feet, carriage wheels or furniture, or be caught by sudden gusts of wind, blowing the wearer off their feet. The crinoline was worn by some factory workers, leading to the textiles firm Courtaulds critical def female employees in 1860 to leave their hoops and crinolines at home.

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Cunnington described seeing a photograph of female employees in the Bryant and May match factories wearing crinolines while at work. Following the Second World War, crinolines were once again revived by designers such as Christian Dior, whose 1947 «New Look» featured full skirts supported by stiffened underskirts. In the mid-1980s Vivienne Westwood revisited the crinoline, taking inspiration from the ballet Petrushka to produce miniskirt length versions that she christened the «mini-crini. Crinolines continue to be worn well into the 21st century, typically as part of formal outfits such as evening gowns, prom dresses, or wedding dresses. In some contexts, the traditional hooped crinoline may be seen as controversial, as in early 2015 when the University of Georgia reportedly requested hoop skirts not be worn to certain fraternity events due to their perceived association with Southern Belles and the slave-owning, upper socioeconomic classes of the American Deep South. Steele, Encyclopedia of clothing and fashion, p.

Crinoline and Whales, Dublin University Magazine, pp. Can Newydd, sef Fflangell Geiniog, i Chwipio y Cylchau o Beisiau y Merched y Crinolines’ gan Dafydd Jones, tudalen 1″. NB: Gernsheim misquotes the rhyme as «God Save our gracious Queen. Punch’s History of Modern England Vol. UGA Bans Hoop Skirts: Cultural Generalization As A Form Of Racism».

The Parents of Oscar Wilde: Sir William and Lady Wilde. Pismo na edno desetgodishno dete koeto sega prŭv pŭt e doshlo v Tsarigrad». Affair of state : a biography of the 8th Duke and Duchess of Devonshire. In 1915 the war crinoline was introduded two years later it vanished. Evening dress worn by HM Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother, 1953″. Fashioning fabrics : contemporary textiles in fashion. Following Up on Oklahoma Frat Scandal, the University of Georgia Bans These ‘Racist’ Clothing Items».

Hoedowns, Reels, and Frolics: Roots and Branches of Southern Appalachian Dance Music in American Life. Viva Las ’50s: 13th rockabilly weekend takes Vegas nightlife back in time». Hoop skirts banned at UGA following Oklahoma frat video». Dublin University Magazine: A Literary and Political Journal.

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