The history of writing traces the development of expressing language by letters or other marks and also the studies and creative writing year 5 of these developments.
In the history of how writing systems have evolved in different human civilizations, more complete writing systems were preceded by proto-writing, systems of ideographic or early mnemonic symbols. Symbolic communication systems are distinguished from writing systems in that one must usually understand something of the associated spoken language to comprehend the text. Scholars make a reasonable distinction between prehistory and history of early writing but have disagreed concerning when prehistory becomes history and when proto-writing became «true writing. The emergence of writing in a given area is usually followed by several centuries of fragmentary inscriptions.
The invention of writing was not a one-time event but was a gradual process initiated by the appearance of symbols, possibly first for cultic purposes. This section does not cite any sources. In connection with this, the following substages may be distinguished: Mnemonic: glyphs primarily as a reminder. Ideographic: graphemes are abstract symbols that directly represent an idea or concept.
Transitional system: graphemes refer not only to the object or idea that it represents but to its name as well. Writing system: graphemes refer to sounds or spoken symbols, and the form year the grapheme is not related to its meanings. Alphabetic: grapheme represents an elementary sound. Jiahu symbols, 5 on tortoise shells in Jiahu, c. Literature and writing, though obviously connected, are not synonymous. The very first writings from ancient Sumer by any reasonable definition do not constitute literature. The same is true of some of the early Egyptian creative and the thousands of ancient Chinese government records.
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Examples of the Jiahu symbols, markings found on tortoise shells, dated around 6000 BC. Most of the signs were separately inscribed on different shells. The first writing systems of the Early Bronze Age were not a sudden invention. Rather, they were a development based on earlier traditions of symbol systems that cannot be classified as proper writing but have many of the characteristics of writing. In 2003, tortoise shells were found in 24 Neolithic graves excavated at Jiahu, Henan province, northern China, with radiocarbon dates from the 7th millennium BC.
The Dispilio Tablet of the late 6th millennium is similar. Turdaș script, Old European script, etc. Even after the Neolithic, several cultures went through an intermediate stage of proto-writing before they used proper writing. The «Slavic runes» from the 7th and 8th centuries AD, mentioned by a few medieval authors, may have been such a system. Writing emerged in many different cultures in the Bronze Age. The original Sumerian writing system derives from a system of clay tokens used to represent commodities. By the end of the 4th millennium BC, this had evolved into a method of keeping accounts, using a round-shaped stylus impressed into soft clay at different angles for recording numbers.
Writing was very important in maintaining the Egyptian empire, and literacy was concentrated among an educated elite of scribes. The undeciphered Proto-Elamite script emerges from as early as 3100 BC. It is believed to have evolved into Linear Elamite by the later 3rd millennium and then replaced by Elamite Cuneiform adopted from Akkadian. Ten Indus characters from the northern gate of Dholavira, India, dubbed the Dholavira Signboard.
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