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Can computers replace books essay

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The first use of the concept of a «singularity» in the technological context was John von Neumann. Good’s «intelligence explosion» model predicts that a future superintelligence will trigger a singularity. In the 2010s, public figures such as Stephen Hawking and Elon Musk expressed concern that full artificial intelligence could result in human extinction. Although technological progress has been accelerating, it has been limited by the basic intelligence of the human brain, which has not, according to Paul R.

If a superhuman intelligence were to be invented—either through the amplification of human intelligence or through artificial intelligence—it would bring to bear greater problem-solving and inventive skills than current humans are capable of. Good speculated in 1965 that artificial general intelligence might bring about an intelligence explosion. Let an ultraintelligent machine be defined as a machine that can far surpass all the intellectual activities of any man however clever. A superintelligence, hyperintelligence, or superhuman intelligence is a hypothetical agent that possesses intelligence far surpassing that of the brightest and most gifted human minds. Superintelligence» may also refer to the form or degree of intelligence possessed by such an agent. Technology forecasters and researchers disagree about if or when human intelligence is likely to be surpassed. Others believe that humans will evolve or directly modify their biology so as to achieve radically greater intelligence.

Most proposed methods for creating superhuman or transhuman minds fall into one of two categories: intelligence amplification of human brains and artificial intelligence. Whether or not an intelligence explosion occurs depends on three factors. The first, accelerating factor, is the new intelligence enhancements made possible by each previous improvement. There are two logically independent, but mutually reinforcing causes of intelligence improvements: increases in the speed of computation, and improvements to the algorithms used. A 2017 email survey of authors with publications at the 2015 NIPS and ICML machine can computers replace books essay conferences asked them about the chance of an intelligence explosion. Both for human and artificial intelligence, hardware improvements increase the rate of future hardware improvements.

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9 external months, whereafter, four months, two months, and so on towards a speed singularity. Belief in this idea is based on a naive understanding of what intelligence is. Would such a computer lead to infinitely fast computers or even computers that were faster than anything humans could ever build? For example, if the speed of thought could be increased a million-fold, a subjective year would pass in 30 physical seconds.

It is difficult to directly compare silicon-based hardware with neurons. The 7 most recent data points are all NVIDIA GPUs. The exponential growth in computing technology suggested by Moore’s law is commonly cited as a reason to expect a singularity in the relatively near future, and a number of authors have proposed generalizations of Moore’s law. Some singularity proponents argue its inevitability through extrapolation of past trends, especially those pertaining to shortening gaps between improvements to technology. One conversation centered on the ever accelerating progress of technology and changes in the mode of human life, which gives the appearance of approaching some essential singularity in the history of the race beyond which human affairs, as we know them, could not continue.

Kurzweil claims that technological progress follows a pattern of exponential growth, following what he calls the «law of accelerating returns». Whenever technology approaches a barrier, Kurzweil writes, new technologies will surmount it. Oft-cited dangers include those commonly associated with molecular nanotechnology and genetic engineering. Some intelligence technologies, like «seed AI», may also have the potential to make themselves more efficient, not just faster, by modifying their source code. The mechanism for a recursively self-improving set of algorithms differs from an increase in raw computation speed in two ways. First, it does not require external influence: machines designing faster hardware would still require humans to create the improved hardware, or to program factories appropriately. Second, as with Vernor Vinge’s conception of the singularity, it is much harder to predict the outcome.

While speed increases seem to be only a quantitative difference from human intelligence, actual algorithm improvements would be qualitatively different. There are substantial dangers associated with an intelligence explosion singularity originating from a recursively self-improving set of algorithms. First, the goal structure of the AI may not be invariant under self-improvement, potentially causing the AI to optimise for something other than was intended. While not actively malicious, there is no reason to think that AIs would actively promote human goals unless they could be programmed as such, and if not, might use the resources currently used to support mankind to promote its own goals, causing human extinction. Carl Shulman and Anders Sandberg suggest that algorithm improvements may be the limiting factor for a singularity because whereas hardware efficiency tends to improve at a steady pace, software innovations are more unpredictable and may be bottlenecked by serial, cumulative research.

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