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Listed by Islamic name and Biblical name. A person’s sīra is that person’s journey through life, or biography, encompassing their birth, events in their life, manners and characteristics, and their death. The phrase sīrat rasūl allāh, or al-sīra al-nabawiyya, refers to the study of the life of Muhammad. The term sīra was first linked to the biography of Muhammad by Ibn Shihab al-Zuhri, and later popularized by the work of Ibn Hisham. Early works of sīra consist of multiple historical reports, or akhbār, and each report is called a khabar. Sometimes the word tradition or hadith is used instead. The sīra literature includes a variety of heterogeneous materials, containing mainly stories of military expeditions undertaken by Muhammad and his companions.
These stories are intended as historical accounts and used for veneration. At later periods, certain type of stories included in sīra developed into their own separate genres. Parts of sīra were inspired by, or elaborate upon, events mentioned in the Qur’an. These parts were often used by writers of tafsir and asbab al-nuzul to provide background information for events mentioned in certain ayat. Rather the purpose of hadith is to record a religious doctrine as an authoritative source of Islamic law. In terms of structure, a hadith and a khabar are very similar. Thus starting from the 8th and 9th century, many scholars have devoted their efforts to both kinds of texts equally.
During the early centuries of Islam, the sīra literature was taken less seriously compared to the hadiths. For centuries, Muslim scholars have recognized the problem of authenticity of hadith. According to Wim Raven, it is often noted that a coherent image of Muhammad cannot be formed from the literature of sīra, whose authenticity and factual value have been questioned on a number of different grounds. Hardly any sīra work was compiled during the first century of Islam. The many discrepancies exhibited in different narrations found in sīra works.
Yet, despite the lack of a single orthodoxy in Islam, there is still a marked agreement on the most general features of the traditional origins story. Later sources claiming to know more about the time of Muhammad than earlier ones. But there are also similarities and agreements both in information specific to Muhammad, and concerning Muslim tradition at large. Some parts or genres of sīra, namely those dealing with miracles, are not fit as sources for scientific historiographical information about Muhammad, except for showing the beliefs and doctrines of his community.
Nevertheless, other content of sīra, like the Constitution of Medina, are generally considered to be authentic. Several books were ascribed to him but none of them are now extant. His akhbār also contain chains of transmissions, or isnad. Some of his traditions A biography of the last prophet of god muhammad been preserved, although their attribution to him is disputed.
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Zuhrī, who collected oral traditions that formed the basis of an important biography of the Prophet. Abd al-ʿAzīz al-Dūrī, Historical Writing, p. Seeing Islam as Others Saw It: A Survey and Evaluation of Christian, Jewish and Zoroastrian Writings on Early Islam. Narratives of Islamic Origins: The Beginnings of Islamic Historical Writing.
Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, University of London. Walker, Santa Barbara, ABC-CLIO, 2014, Vol. Muhammad is the prophet and founder of Islam. Born in Mecca in 570, most of his early life was spent as a merchant. At age 40, he began to have revelations from Allah that became the basis for the Koran and the foundation of Islam. By 630 he had unified most of Arabia under a single religion. As of 2015, there are over 1.
His father died before he was born and he was raised first by his grandfather and then his uncle. He belonged to a poor but respectable family of the Quraysh tribe. The family was active in Meccan politics and trade. Many of the tribes living in the Arabian Peninsula at the time were nomadic, trading goods as they crisscrossed the dessert. Most tribes were polytheistic, worshipping their own set of gods.
The town of Mecca was an important trading and religious center, home to many temples and worship sites where the devoted prayed to the idols of these gods. In his early teens, Muhammad worked in a camel caravan, following in the footsteps of many people his age, born of meager wealth. Working for his uncle, he gained experience in commercial trade traveling to Syria and eventually from the Mediterranean Sea to the Indian Ocean. In his early 20s, Muhammad began working for a wealthy merchant woman named Khadihah, 15 years his senior. She soon became attracted to this young, accomplished man and proposed marriage. He accepted and over the years the happy union brought several children.
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